Autism is still a puzzle to many – Neuro-anotomical investigations suggest that if it is to be assumed that all human behaviour originates from the brain, that it must be clear that to identify the cause of abnormal behaviour that a comparison is necessary between a typical brain and the brain of an Autistic person.

Dr.Joseph Piven from the University of Iowa identified a size difference with the autistic brain showing a larger cerebellum and a smaller corpus collosum than the typical brain. The function of the corpus collosum is the intercommunication with the brain – this suggests that the parts of the Autistic person’s brain don't communicate with each other and a likelihood of an Autistic person showing difficulty in organising the world into a meaningful context.

A further study showed differences in the size of the amygdala and the hippocampus in an Autistic person’s brain. These structures were shown to have more densely packed neurons which were smaller than in the typical brain. In addition the cellebellum showed a definite reduction in the number of purkinje cells. These cells play a major role as they contain seratonin – a neurotransmitter responsible for inhibition. It has been suggested that the reduced level of seratonin can be associated with faulty arousal and mood regulation.

Interestingly noted is that the structure and the function go hand in hand with one another showing evidence of the changes in one affecting the other. The differing sizes inparts of the brain to one another have shown to be disproportionate or distorted in the brain of an Autistic person.

An Autistic person shows signs of impairment in social interaction, difficulty with communication (verbal and non-verbal), difficulty with imagination and a limited range of interests.

To conclude: Many scientists are in acceptance that Autism is caused by a malfunction in the development of the brain which involves many regions  - though scientists are still conducting their research into a cause to find out if it is genetic, or caused by a biochemical toxity trauma.